NACD’s TSI – Targeted Sound Intervention programs can be used by all ages, 3 and above. They are equally appropriate for children and adults. Candidacy is based more on functional report than on specific diagnosis.
Individuals with any of the following concerns should consider a TSI program:
- lack of focus
- hard to listen and understand when there is background noise
- overly sensitive to sound
- needs a totally quiet environment to concentrate
- mis-hears information
learn to listen
- anyone who has trouble listening and paying attention
- anyone who has trouble staying focused
understand speech in noise
- anyone who has completed Focused Attention and wants to take their work to the next level
- anyone who has problems listening and understanding speech in noisy environments
“process” the sounds of speech
- speech and language disorders/delays
- auditory processing problems
There are some groups who are especially at risk for difficulty with auditory figure-ground processing:
- Learning Disabilities
- Hearing Loss
- Auditory Processing Problems
- Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Down Syndrome
- Other Genetic Disorders
Children with attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD, ADHD) have long been considered candidates for the use of therapeutic music to remediate functional problems. Individuals in this group tend to have distractibility and focus problems, especially in the auditory realm, the main function that TSI: Focused Attention addresses.
As in ADD, children with LD or learning problems have neurological inefficiencies that are often addressed with therapeutic music as a part of their treatment regimen. Distractibility and attention/focus problems are common in this group.
Children with hearing loss are at a higher risk for difficulties with auditory processing, simply from the lack of or inefficient auditory stimulation to the brain. A recent study (2010) showed that even in children with unilateral hearing loss, the brain learns to process sound differently, compared to those with normal hearing. In general, functional MRI indicated less activation in auditory areas and attention networks for children with a unilateral hearing loss.
Children with Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD), now more commonly referred to as Auditory Processing Disorder (APD), exhibit a number of functional problems. Being able to separate foreground sounds from background sounds and therefore process speech in noise is one common problem for these individuals. (For a more complete discussion of auditory processing, visit the Science pages of our website.)
Children with autism tend to have particular problems with sound-related function. Many children are hypersensitive to sound, making dealing with background sound a very significant problem. Their difficulty with handling and processing auditory input leads to sensory behaviors, speech and language problems, and other behavioral challenges.
Just by nature of the syndrome, children with Down Syndrome are at higher risk for ear-related challenges—ear infections, middle ear fluid, hearing loss. Any of these factors contribute to the development of auditory processing. Subsequently, attention and speech/language are frequently areas of concern as well. (For more information about Down Syndrome and the significance of auditory function, please visit our Down Syndrome website.)
Many other genetic syndromes or problems—-such as Williams Syndrome, Angelman, or Fragile X—involve developmental problems related to the auditory system.